Phd Research Paper Outline

0000 Thesis statement

0100 Introduction section

0101 Problem

0102 Hypothesis

0200 Second section

0201 First topic

0202 Second topic

0203 Third topic

0300 Third section

0301 First topic

0302 Second topic

0303 Third topic

0400 Conclusion section

0401 Solution

0402 Significance

"Outlining is the first step to writing effectively."1

"An outline for a research paper is basically 60 percent of the work done."2

"While writing a research paper outline, you basically write the main parts of the assignment."3

"Statement of topic and aims: Identify the general subject area and outline how your topic relates to the field."4

"When starting to work on a research paper outline, sit down and focus on the sub topics of your main topic, so-called additional questions - they add new details to your problem and help make a research paper more complete."5

"For writing the main chapters you can begin early on with an outline of chapter titles, with bullet points of likely topics to be included."6

"This is useful even if a chapter is not complete since writing a chapter from a rough or incomplete outline is easier than starting from scratch."7

"The best way to get started on your thesis is to prepare an extended outline."8

"Admit it - it's much easier to adjust or rewrite several points in an outline than rewriting a whole paragraph or even several paragraphs in a research paper itself."9

"Now you and your thesis supervisor should carefully review this outline: is there unnecessary material (i.e. not directly related to the problem statement)?"10

"It is much less painful and more time-efficient to make such decisions early, during the outline phase, rather than after you've already done a lot of writing which has to be thrown away."11

"If you have a co-adviser, discuss the outline with him/her as well, and present all chapters to both advisers for comments."12

"Once you and your adviser have agreed on a logical structure, s/he will need a copy of this outline for reference when reading the chapters which you will probably present out of order."13

"These key words provide a skeleton for much of your chapter outline."14

"First make up a thesis outline: several pages containing chapter headings, sub-headings, some figure titles (to indicate which results go where) and perhaps some other notes and comments."15

"My outline and execution of my set schedule forced the paper to be done in small chunks, rather than the typical giant one, when many students, kids or adults, sit down the night before and try to accomplish a mammoth amount worth of work in one all-nighter."16

"Here, you should re-visit the aims and objectives of your research and outline the methods that you used to achieve those aims and objectives."17

"Important things for an outline: You should be able to structure your notes into headings and subheadings."18

"I also work bottom-up by writing blocks of content and then fitting them into my outline."19

"An outline helps you see how things fit together."20

"Outline: This is a great organizational tool that will assist you in getting your ideas down in a logical order or sequence."21

"This technique offers both the creative side of the free writing as well as the organization of the outline form. Once you have your basic ideas on paper, take one at a time and focus on getting down all the information you can."22

"Use your outline and be organised."23

"Use key sentences as an after-the-fact outline."24

"Once you have viewed your key sentences as an after-the-fact outline a few times you will discover how valuable it is to see your prose through this new lens."25

"Write down speculations, interesting problems, possible solutions, random ideas, references to look up, notes on papers you've read, outlines of papers to write, and interesting quotes."26

"For example, if you take your outline or checklist for what should be in your chapter II, it may look something like this: One section on what the research problem, another section on what are the five big themes in the literature that you need to be aware."27

"If you get stuck in the writing, just refer back to your outline and be thinking about where it is you have to take this particular section or category where you have to begin and where you have to end up, so that it flows into the next theme that you've already identified."28

"By taking the time to set up this kind of outline at the beginning, your writing process will be much easier and will proceed more smoothly."29

"Plan your thesis. Convert this argument into a chapter outline. At least one chapter per sentence ...maybe more than one for some sentences. Start a binder with a division for each chapter. Collect material in this binder. Set out clearly what each chapter should say."30

"You should cite examples of relevant practice if these are what establish the context of your own research (for example, if you are proposing work that constitutes a technical breakthrough in interactive cinema, outline the achievements and limitations of precursors)."31

"If your approach is experimental or comparative, outline how this approach will yield results (what do you expect to discover; why have you selected particular case studies?)."32

"If Chapter outline and thesis breakdown (required for PhD review synopsis or upgrade proposal; optional for first proposal): Identify each chapter and practical component, clearly defining its relationship to the overall thesis."33

"So, by building it up in increments, you all of a sudden go from some chapter headings or title headings (which don't mean anything to you) to actually an outline that is semi-filled out where you actually put in your own data or your own content in terms of the questions you need to answer."34

"It would be a good idea to provide an outline of your chapter so that your advisor can get a good overview of what the chapter is about and where it fits into your thesis or dissertation."35

1 Rachna D. Jain, "Outlining," <>.

2 Mimi Rothschild, "Writing a Great Research Paper," <>.

3 Mimi Rothschild, "Writing a Great Research Paper," <>.

4 "Writing a PhD Proposal or synopsis," <>.

5 Mimi Rothschild, "Writing a Great Research Paper," <>.

6 "The Easier Way to Write a PhD Thesis," <>.

7 "The Easier Way to Write a PhD Thesis," <>.

8 John W. Chinneck, "How to Organize a Thesis," <>.

9 Mimi Rothschild, "Writing a Great Research Paper," <>.

10 John W. Chinneck, "How to Organize a Thesis," <>.

11 John W. Chinneck, "How to Organize a Thesis," <>.

12 "How to Write a PhD Thesis," <>.

13 "How to Write a PhD Thesis," <>.

14 "How to Write a PhD Thesis," <>.

15 "How to Write a PhD Thesis," <>.

16 Jackie Black, "Goodbye Panic Attacks: Writing A Research Paper - Begin," <>.

17 "La Tesis de Grado en Universidades de Autralia," <>.

18 Sacha Chua, "Note-taking: Random notes, journal entries, outlines, and hyperlinks," <>.

19 Sacha Chua, "Note-taking: Random notes, journal entries, outlines, and hyperlinks," <>.

20 Sacha Chua, "Note-taking: Random notes, journal entries, outlines, and hyperlinks," <>.

21 Pam Sissons, "Academic Writing Skills: Great Writing Starts With Creative Thought & Organization," <>

22 Pam Sissons, "Academic Writing Skills: Great Writing Starts With Creative Thought & Organization," <>

23 "Writing up your PhD thesis," <>.

24 Tara Gray, "Publish & Flourish: Become a Prolific Scholar," <>.

25 Tara Gray, "Publish & Flourish: Become a Prolific Scholar," <>.

26 Tara Gray, "Publish & Flourish: Become a Prolific Scholar," <>.

27 Rachna D. Jain, "Outlining," <>.

28 Rachna D. Jain, "Outlining," <>.

29 Rachna D. Jain, "Outlining," <>.

30 Steve Easterbrook, "How Theses Get Written: Some Cool Tips," <>.

31 "Writing a PhD Proposal or synopsis," <>.

32 "Writing a PhD Proposal or synopsis," <>.

33 "Writing a PhD Proposal or synopsis," <>.

34 Rachna D. Jain, "Outlining," <>.

35 Wendy Carter, "Avoid Graduate School Hell! Select Your Advisor and Committee Wisely," <>.

›› How to write a literature review outline (sample notes).

Major points are the building blocks of your paper. Major points build on each other, moving the paper forward and toward its conclusion. Each major point should be a clear claim that relates to the central argument of your paper.

Sample Major Point: Employment and physical health may be a good first major point for this sample paper.  Here, a student might discuss how dropping out of high school often leads to fewer employment opportunities, and those employment opportunities that are available tend to be correlated with poor work environments and low pay.

Minor points are subtopics within your major points. Minor points develop the nuances of your major points but may not be significant enough to warrant extended attention on their own. These may come in the form of statistics, examples from your sources, or supporting ideas.

Sample Minor Point: A sample minor point of the previous major point (employment and physical health) might address worker injury or the frequent lack of health insurance benefits offered by low-paying employers.

The rest of the body of your paper will be made up of more major and minor points. Each major point should advance the paper's central argument, often building on the previous points, until you have provided enough evidence and analysis to justify your paper's conclusion.

More Major and Minor Points: In this paper, more major points might include mental health of high school dropouts, healthcare access for dropouts, and correlation between mental and physical health. Minor topics could include specific work environments, job satisfaction in various fields, and correlation between depression and chronic illness.

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