Nz Law Style Guide Bibliography

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6.4Journal articles

6.4.1General form

The format for citing journal articles is as follows:

Eg Peter Watts “Birks’ Unjust Enrichment” (2005) 121 LQR 163 at 165.


Give the author’s name in accordance with rule 6.1.2.

Some journals include the name of the author at the end rather than at the start of the article.


Give the title of the article in double quotation marks, with spelling and capitalisation as per the original (unless the original is in all caps, in which case capitalise only the first letter of significant words). Remove any unnecessary punctuation in accordance with rule 1.1.2.

Quotation marks within a title should be single.

Eg Michael Taggart “From ‘Parliamentary Powers’ to Privatization: The Chequered History of Delegated Legislation in the Twentieth Century” (2005) 55 U Toronto LJ 575.

Retain any italicisation within the title.

Eg Leonard Rotman “‘My Hovercraft is Full of Eels’: Smoking Out the Message in R v Marshall” (2000) 63 Sask L Rev 617 at 618.


Give the year of the journal in round brackets if the journal has independent volume numbers. Most journals follow this format.

If the year is also the volume number of the journal, give the year in square brackets.

Eg Jessica Palmer “Theories of the Trust and What They Might Mean for Beneficiary Rights to Information” [2010] NZ L Rev 541.

Eg Paul Rishworth “Common Law Rights and Navigation Lights: Judicial Review and the New Zealand Bill of Rights” (2004) 15 PLR 103 at 107.

If the volume spans more than one year, use the year of the particular article.

Eg Volume 30 of the University of Chicago Law Review covers the years 1962–1963. The citation of an article written in 1962 is:

Bernard Meltzer “Organisational Picketing and the NLRB: Five on a Seesaw” (1962) 30 U Chi L Rev 78.


If the journal in which the article appears is organised by volume number, give that number after the year.

Where there are multiple issues within a single volume and those issues are not sequentially paginated, include the issue number after the volume number in round brackets.

Eg Ben Mathews and Kerryann Walsh “At the Cutting Edge: Issues in Mandatory Reporting of Child Sexual Abuse by Australian Teachers” (2004) 9(2) Australia & New Zealand Journal of Law & Education 3.

Most journals sequentially paginate from one issue to the next. Where this is the case, do not include the issue number.

Eg Christopher Eisgruber and Lawrence Sager “The Vulnerability of Conscience: The Constitutional Basis for Protecting Religious Conduct” (1994) 61 U Chi L Rev 1245.

NOT Christopher Eisgruber and Lawrence Sager “The Vulnerability of Conscience: The Constitutional Basis for Protecting Religious Conduct” (1994) 61(4) U Chi L Rev 1245.

When citing a serial publication that uses issue numbers as opposed to volume numbers, give the issue number instead of the volume number, without brackets.

Eg Catriona MacLennan “Radical criminal pre-trial changes” (2009) 733 Law Talk 7.

6.4.6Journal abbreviation

The journal itself is the authoritative source for its official citation/abbreviation, except that any punctuation should be removed.

This may mean that “Review” is abbreviated differently depending on the journal in question. In New Zealand, Australia and England it is common to abbreviate Review as “R”, while in North America “Review” is abbreviated to “Rev”. If “LR” is used, do not include a space between the letters; if “Rev” is used, include a space between “L” and “Rev”, ie “L Rev”.

For further guidance consult the Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations, available at <>, for international materials. For New Zealand materials, use the Legal Citations for Aotearoa New Zealand database, available at <>.

Eg Stephen Todd “Wrongful Conception, Wrongful Birth and Wrongful Life” (2005) 27 Sydney Law Review 525.

Eg Kent Greenawalt “Moral and Religious Convictions as Categories for Special Treatment: The Exemption Strategy” (2007) 48 Wm & Mary L Rev 1605.

Note that some journals do not abbreviate “Law Review”.

Where the name or abbreviation of a journal has changed, use the abbreviation adopted by the journal in the volume being cited. For example, the New Zealand Law Review formerly used the abbreviation “NZ Law Review”. From 2008 it has used the abbreviation “NZ L Rev”. It was also formerly known as the New Zealand Recent Law Review.

Eg J K Maxton “Equity” [1994] NZ Recent Law Review 245.

Eg Jesse Wilson "Prior Restraint of the Press" [2006] NZ Law Review 551.

Eg Scott Optican “‘Front-End’/‘Back-End’ Adjudication (Rights Versus Remedies) Under Section 21 of the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990” [2008] NZ L Rev 409.

For non-legal academic journals, the journal is the authoritative source for its official citation/abbreviation, except that any punctuation should be removed. If no abbreviation is given by the journal, give the journal name in full.

6.4.7Page reference

Give the starting page number of the article after the journal title.


The pinpoint reference follows the starting page number, preceded by “at”.

Where the pinpoint reference is to the first page of the article, repeat the page number.

Eg Campbell McLachlan “The Principle of Systemic Integration and Article 31(3)(c) of the Vienna Convention” (2005) 54 ICLQ 279 at 279.

When giving a pinpoint citation to a footnote or endnote, give the reference to the paragraph or page in which the footnote or endnote appears followed by a comma and “n x” where “x” is the number of the footnote or endnote.

Eg Peter Devonshire “Fraud on a Power: A Doctrine in Retreat” [2010] NZ L Rev 503 at 511, n 46.

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Table of Contents

  • Preface to the second editioni
  • Preface to the first editionii
  • Major changes in the second editioniii
  • General rules for citation2.1.1
  • The location of citation information2.1.2
  • Punctuation only when grammatically necessary2.1.3
  • Numbering and format of footnotes2.2
  • Numbering2.2.1
  • Position of footnote numbers in the main text2.2.2
  • Location of footnotes2.2.3
  • Format and content of footnotes2.2.4
  • Subsequent references to a cited source2.3.1
  • Reference tags for cases2.3.2
  • Determining how to cite a case3.1
  • Reported cases3.2
  • Māori Land Court and Māori Appellate Court decisions3.5
  • Waitangi tribunal3.6
  • Historic judgments3.7
  • Historic judgments reported in newspapers3.7.1
  • Cases in New Zealand's Lost Cases Project3.7.2
  • General form4.1.1
  • Imperial legislation4.1.2
  • Pre-1854 Ordinances4.1.3
  • Legislation from 1854 on4.1.4
  • General form4.2.1
  • Select committee reports and explanatory notes4.2.2
  • Supplementary order papers4.2.3
  • Overview4.3.1
  • Statutory instruments – regulations, rules and orders4.3.2
  • Instruments in their own right4.3.3
  • Court rules4.3.4
  • Other statutory instruments4.4
  • Deemed regulations4.4.1
  • Determinations of the Remuneration Authority4.4.2
  • Letters patent4.5
  • Proclamations4.6
  • Parliamentary materials5.1
  • Hansard5.1.1
  • Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives5.1.2
  • Submissions to select committees5.1.3
  • Standing orders5.1.4
  • Government publications5.2
  • Cabinet documents5.2.1
  • Cabinet Manual5.2.2
  • Law Commission reports5.2.3
  • New Zealand Gazette5.2.4
  • Select Committee reports5.2.5
  • Requests under the Official Information Act 19825.3
  • Papers and reports5.4
  • Essays in edited books6.2
  • Theses and research papers6.7.1
  • Seminars and papers presented at conferences6.7.2
  • References to a work referred to in another work6.9
  • Newspaper and magazine articles7.2
  • General rules8.1
  • Australia8.2
  • Citation of cases reported in law reports8.5.1
  • Neutral citations8.5.2
  • Mode of citation8.6.1
  • Federal court decisions8.6.2
  • State court decisions8.6.3
  • Pre-1963 statutes9.4.1
  • Modern statutes (prior to the 1998 constitutional reforms)9.4.2
  • Modern statutes (post-1998)9.4.3
  • Decisions of international courts and tribunals10.2
  • International Court of Justice and Permanent Court of International Justice10.2.1
  • Modern international criminal courts and tribunals10.2.2
  • International arbitral decisions10.3
  • United Nations materials10.4
  • General form for constitutive documents of the United Nations10.4.1
  • General form for other United Nations materials10.4.2
  • International Law Commission10.4.3
  • General form for European Union cases10.5.1
  • European Union legislation10.5.2
  • General form for European Court of Human Rights cases10.5.3
  • General form for European Commission of Human Rights cases10.5.4
  • International Economic Materials10.6
  • General form for official documents of the World Trade Organization (WTO)10.6.1
  • General form for official documents of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)10.6.2
  • Appendix 1: Identifiers for New Zealand courts and tribunalsApp 1
  • Appendix 2: Australian official report series and neutral citationsApp 2
  • Appendix 3: Canadian official report series and neutral citationsApp 3
  • Appendix 4: England and Wales official report series and neutral citationsApp 4
  • Appendix 5: Table of regnal yearsApp 5
  • Appendix 6: Court rules relating to styleApp 6
  • Appendix 7: Additional style rules for university workApp 7
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