Old Polaroid Camera Types Assignment

Edwin Land and polarized light

As a boy, Land was fascinated by light. In particular, he was drawn to the natural phenomenon of light polarization.

Polarization refers to a physical property of light waves. As the waves move forward, they vibrate vertically, horizontally, and at all angles in between. A polarizer acts like a slatted screen, with long, thin, parallel openings. These invisible slats stop all angles of light except those parallel to the openings. By doing so, polarizers provide the ability to select light waves with particular orientations.

Natural polarizers were effective at reducing glare and measuring angles of reflectivity, but they were large and expensive. Land imagined important uses for synthetic polarizers, if they could be produced. Almost from the start of his work, around age 13, Land was searching for a product that would improve vehicle safety during nighttime driving: If polarizers could be placed in headlights and windshields, then they could be used to prevent the disturbing glare from oncoming vehicles’ headlights. Moreover, because glare would be eliminated, headlights could be made brighter, thereby increasing the safety of nighttime driving.

In 1926, Land enrolled at Harvard University to study physics, but his desire to conduct research caused him to leave after only a few months in search of more practical opportunities. He moved to New York City, where he studied physical optics independently at the New York Public Library and conducted experiments secretly at Columbia University. There, he worked to develop a synthetic polarizer.

Land’s experiments built on those of the British chemist and surgeon William Herapath (1820–1868). Herapath had sought, with little success, to produce large synthetic crystals that would mimic the natural crystals that were the most useful polarizers available at the time. Land recognized an alternative, and he worked to arrange a mass of microscopic crystals to produce the same effect. He created fine polarizing crystals, suspended them in liquid lacquer, and aligned them using an electromagnet. He then pulled a sheet of celluloid (a thin, clear plastic) through this solution to make a continuous sheet of crystals. As the lacquer dried, the crystals retained their orientation, and the result was a polarizing sheet that was thin, transparent, and pliable.

In 1929, Land applied for his first patent, a method for producing his polarizing sheets. He returned to Harvard in the same year but left again before completing his undergraduate degree to focus on his emerging business. By 1930, Land had identified a more promising way to manufacture polarizing sheets: Instead of using electromagnets, he could apply the tiny crystals to a plastic sheet and, by stretching it, achieve parallel alignment of the crystals. Although it took several years to perfect, this method resulted in the commercial production of polarized sheets.

In 1932, Land and George W. Wheelwright, III (1903–2001), a Harvard colleague, formed Land-Wheelwright Laboratories in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to manufacture polarizers. The company’s inexpensive polarizers were used in photographic filters, glare-free sunglasses, and stereoscopic products that gave the illusion of three-dimensional (3-D) images. 3-D movies were created by applying polarizers to projectors and viewing glasses. The company also invented a new product called a vectograph that combined two still images taken from slightly different positions and printed as oppositely-polarized images; using polarized glasses, viewers saw a 3-D image of the subject.

In 1937, Land-Wheelwright became a public company named Polaroid Corporation after the trade name for the firm’s polarizing films. While Land’s dream of anti-glare vehicle systems was never implemented by automakers, the company was making a good business on polarizing films.

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This is a list of the instant cameras sold by the Polaroid Corporation. Cameras are ordered by type.

Roll film[edit]

These cameras took Polaroid Picture Roll Land film, which was discontinued in 1992. Some of these cameras can be converted to take pack film, but others cannot.

  • 40 Series (3.25 x 4.25-inch, 83 x 108 mm)
    • Model 95 (1948–1953)
    • Model 95A "Speedliner" (1954–1957)
    • Model 95B "Speedliner" (1957–1961)
    • Model 100 "One Hundred" (1954–1957)
    • Model 110 "Pathfinder" (1952–1957)
    • Model 110A "Pathfinder" (1957–1960)
    • Model 110B "Pathfinder" (1960–1964)
    • Model 120 (1961–1965)
    • Model 150 (1957–1960)
    • Model 160 (1962–1965)
    • Model 700 (1955–1957)
    • Model 800 "The 800" (1957–1962)
    • Model 850 (1961–1963)
    • Model 900 (1960–1963)
    • Model J66 (1961–1963)
  • 30 Series (2.5 x 3.25-inch, 64 x 83 mm)
    • Model 80 "Highlander" (1954–1957)
    • Model 80A "Highlander" (1957–1959)
    • Model 80B "Highlander" (1959–1961)
    • Model J33 (1961–1963)
  • 20 Series (2.5 x 3.25-inch, 64 x 83 mm)

Pack film (colorpack)[edit]

  • 100 Series (2.875 x 3.75-inch, 72 x 95 mm)
    • 100 Series folding cameras
      • Model 100 (1963–1966)
      • Model 101 (1964–1967)
      • Model 102 (1964–1967) [1]
      • Model 103 (1965–1967)
      • Model 104 (1965–1967)
      • Model 125 (1965–1967) [1]
      • Model 135 (1965–1967) [1]
    • 200 Series folding cameras
      • Model 210 (1967–1969)
      • Model 215 (1968–1970) [1]
      • Model 220 (1967–1969)
      • Model 225 (1968–1970) [1]
      • Model 230 (1967–1969)
      • Model 240 (1967–1969)
      • Model 250 (1967–1969)
    • 300 Series folding cameras
      • Model 315 (1969–1971) [1]
      • Model 320 (1969–1971)
      • Model 325 (1969–1971) [1]
      • Model 330 (1969–1971)
      • Model 335 (1969–1971) [1]
      • Model 340 (1969–1971)
      • Model 350 (1969–1971)
      • Model 355 (1975) [2]
      • Model 360 (1969–1971)
      • Countdown M60 (1970) [1]
      • Countdown M80 (1970) [1]
    • 400 Series folding cameras
      • Model 420 (1971–1977)
      • Model 430 (1971–1977)
      • Model 440 (1971–1976)
      • Model 450 (1971–1974)
      • Model 455 (1975–1976) [2]
      • Countdown 70 (1971–1973) [1]
      • Countdown 90 (1971–1973) [1]
    • Other folding cameras
      • Model 180 (1965–1969)
      • Model 185
      • Model 185 Millennium (2000-) [2]
      • Model 190 (1974–1977) [2]
      • Model 195 (1974–1976) [6]
      • The Reporter (1977) [3][6]
      • EE100 (1977) [3]
      • EE100 Special [3]
      • ProPack [3]
    • Non-folding cameras
      • 600 (1978) [2]
      • 600SE (1978)
      • Model 3000 "Big Swinger" (1968–1970)
      • Big Shot (1971–1973)
      • Clincher (1975) [1][3]
      • Clincher 2 [1][3]
      • The Colorpack (1973–1975)
      • Colorpack II (1969–1972)
      • Colorpack III (1970–1971)
      • Colorpack IV (1969–1971) [1]
      • Colorpack V "CP5" (1973–1975) [1]
      • Colorpack 100 (1975–1976) [2]
      • Colorpack 200 (1977–1978) [2][3]
      • Colorpack M6 (1970–1971)
      • EE55 (1976–1977) [2][3]
      • EE58 (1977–1978) [2][3]
      • EE60 (1976–1977) [2][3]
      • EE66 (1976–1977) [2][3]
      • Instant 30 (1978) [2][3]
      • Memory Maker [1]
      • Minute Maker (1977) [3][4]
      • Minute Maker Plus (1977–1978) [3][6]
      • Super Colorpack (1971–1972)
      • Super Colorpack IV (1971–1972) [1]
      • Super Colour Swinger III (1976–1978) [2][3]
      • Super Shooter (1975–1977) [3][6]
      • Super Shooter Plus (1975–1977) [3]
  • 80 Series (2.75 x 2.875-inch, 69 x 72 mm)
    • Colorpack 80 (1971–1976) [2]
    • Colorpack 82 (1971–1975) [2]
    • Colorpack 85 (1971–1975) [2]
    • Colorpack 88 (1971–1975) [2]
    • Colour Swinger (1975–1978) [2]
    • Colour Swinger II (1975) [2]
    • EE22 (1976–1977) [2]
    • EE33 (1976–1977) [2]
    • EE38 (1977–1978) [2]
    • EE44 (1976–1977) [2]
    • EE88 (1976) [2]
    • Electric Zip (1975–1978)
    • Instant 10 (1978) [2]
    • Instant 20 (1978) [2]
    • Square Shooter (1971–1972)
    • Square Shooter 2 (1972–1975)
    • Square Shooter 4 (1972–1975) [1]
    • Super Colour Swinger (1975–1977) [2]
    • Super Colour Swinger II (1975–1978) [2]
    • Super Swinger [2]
    • Swinger EE (1976–1978) [2]
    • Zip (1974–1977)
    • Viva with electronic flash No.M1183 (1984) for Caribbean market

Integral Film[edit]

These cameras included both folding SLRs and less expensive nonfolding models.

  • Folding cameras
    • SX-70 (1972–1977)
    • SX-70 Alpha 1 (1977)
    • SX-70 Alpha 1 Executive (1977) [1]
    • SX-70 Alpha 1 24 Kt Gold Mildred Scheel
    • SX-70 Alpha 1 Model 2 (1977)
    • SX-70 Executive (1975–1977) [1]
    • SX-70 Model 2 (1974–1977)
    • SX-70 Model 3 (1975–1978)
    • SX-70 Sonar OneStep (1978)
    • SX-70 Sonar OneStep Gold
    • TimeZero SX-70 AutoFocus (1981)
    • TimeZero SX-70 AutoFocus Model 2 (1981)
  • Non-folding cameras
    • Model 500 [2]
    • Model 1000 (1977) [2]
    • Model 1000 S [2]
    • Model 1000 SE
    • Model 1500 (1977) [2]
    • Model 2000 (1976) [2]
    • Model 3000 (1977) [2]
    • Encore (1977) [1]
    • Instant 1000 [2]
    • Instant 1000 DeLuxe [2]
    • OneStep (1977) [4][5][6]
    • OneStep Plus [1]
    • Presto! (1978) [1]
    • Pronto! (1976–1977) [4][5][6]
    • Pronto! B (1977)
    • Pronto! Extra (1977–1978)
    • Pronto! Plus (1976–1977)
    • Pronto! RF (1977) [4][5][6]
    • Pronto! S (1976–1977) [1]
    • Pronto! SM (1976–1977) [1]
    • Pronto! Sonar OneStep (1978) [5]
    • Sonar AutoFocus 5000 [2]
    • Super Clincher [1]
    • Supercolor 1000 [2]
    • Supercolor 1000 DeLuxe [2]
    • Supercolor AutoFocus [2]
    • Supercolor AutoFocus 3500 [2]
    • The Button (1981)
    • TimeZero OneStep (1981)
    • TimeZero Pronto AF (1981)

600[edit]

  • 600 (2000s)
  • 600 Business Edition
  • 600 Business Edition 2 (2000-)
  • 636 Double Exposure
  • 636 CloseUp (1996)
  • Amigo 610
  • Amigo 620 (1982)
  • Barbie Instant Camera (1999–2001)
  • Cool Cam (1988)
  • Construction Camera
  • Impulse (1988)
  • Impulse AF (1988)
  • Impulse QPS
  • JobPro (1992)
  • JobPro 2 (2000-)
  • NightCam
  • One (2003)
  • One600 Classic (2004)
  • One600 Pro (2004)
  • One600 JobPro (2004)
  • One600 Ultra (2004)
  • One600 Nero (2004) [1]
  • One600 Panna (2005) [1]
  • One600 Rossa (2004) [1]
  • OneStep 600 (1983)
  • OneStep 600 Express (1997–2002)
  • OneStep 600 Flash
  • OneStep 600 Flash Close-Up (just OneStep after 1998)
  • OneStep AF (1997-)
  • OneStep Silver Express
  • OneStep Talking Camera (1997–1998)
  • P-Cam
  • Pronto 600 [2]
  • Quick 610
  • Revue 600
  • SLR 680 (1982–1987) [6]
  • SLR 690 (1998) [1]
  • SpiceCam (1998)
  • Spirit [1]
  • Spirit 600 [1]
  • Spirit 600 CL [1]
  • Sun 600 LMS (1983)
  • Lightmixer 630
  • Sun 635 SE
  • Sun 640 (1981)
  • Sun 650 (1982)
  • Sun 660 (1981)
  • Revue Autofocus 660
  • Supercolor 600
  • Supercolor 635 [2]
  • Supercolor 635 CL [2]
  • Supercolor 645 CL [2]
  • Supercolor 670 AF [2]
  • Supercolor Elite [1]
  • Taz Instant Camera (1999–2001)
  • Hello Kitty Instant Camera

Spectra[edit]

  • Image [2]
  • Image 2 [2]
  • Image1200 (2004)
  • Image Elite Pro [2]
  • Macro 5 SLR
  • Minolta Pro (1996)
  • Pro Cam (1996–2000)
  • Spectra (1986) [6]
  • Spectra 2
  • Spectra 1200i (2000-)
  • Spectra 1200si (2000-)
  • Spectra 1200FF (2001)
  • Spectra Onyx (1987)
  • Spectra Pro (1990–1998)

Captiva[edit]

  • Captiva (1993–1997)
  • JoyCam (1999)
  • PopShots (1999–2001)
  • Vision (1993)
  • Vision date:+ (1993–1997)
  • P-500 Digital Photo Printer

Pocket cameras[edit]

  • i-Zone (1999)
  • izone200 (2004)
  • I-Zone 200 (2005)
  • i-Zone Convertible (2001–2002)
  • i-Zone Digital Combo (2000–2001)
  • i-Zone with Radio (2001–2002)
  • Mio (2001)
  • Xiao (1997) [2]

Large-format cameras[edit]

  • 20 x 24" camera (1976)
  • 40 x 80" camera at Boston's Museum of Fine Arts (1976)

Notes[edit]

  1. Special markets model.

  2. International model, not sold in United States.

  3. These cameras can use both 100 and 80 Series film.

  4. Specially badged "BC" model for Kmart stores also exists.

  5. Specially badged "Sears Special" model for Sears stores also exists.

  6. "SE" model also exists.

References[edit]

  • Kuhn, Martin (2005). The Land List. Retrieved on November 1, 2005. (and subpages).
Polaroid Highlander Model 80A
Polaroid Land Camera model 80B
Polaroid Automatic 350 instant camera, made from 1969 to 1971, list price $150
Polaroid SX-70 Land Camera model 2 instant camera
Polaroid OneStep 600 Express
Polaroid OneStep Autofocus SE
Polaroid Sun 600 LMS instant camera
Polaroid Sun Autofocus 660 instant camera

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